Types of Steel & Steel Grades

February 11, 2021 | Categorised in:

steel warehouse


Steel is one of the most useful materials in the world. In the simplest context, steel is composed of iron and carbon, but in actuality, steel isn’t so simple. The concentration of carbon and iron or the addition of other elements affect steels’ properties and strength, which aids in steel’s usefulness for an endless variety of end uses. 

The Four Types of Steel

Steel is grouped into four categories:

  1. Carbon steel – Carbon steel has a higher concentration of carbon than other types of steel (up to 2.5% carbon), which adds to carbon steel’s strength. Carbon steel is commonly used to make construction materials, tools, automotive components, and more.
  2. Alloy steel – Alloy steel is made by combining carbon steel with one or several alloying elements, such as titanium, copper, chromium, aluminum, manganese, silicon, and nickel. This produces specific properties that are not found in standard carbon steel.
  3. Stainless steel – Stainless steel is a type of steel alloy that contains a minimum of 11% chromium, which helps the material resist corrosion.
  4. Tool steel – Tool steel is a type of steel alloy that’s hardness, resistance to abrasion, and ability to retain shape at increased temperatures make it a popular choice for hand tools and machine dies.

Steel Classifications

Steel can also be classified by several different factors, including:

  • Composition (carbon range, alloy, stainless, etc.)
  • Finishing method (hot rolled, cold rolled, cold finished, etc.)
  • Production method (electric furnace, continuous cast, etc.)
  • Microstructure (ferritic, pearlitic, martensitic, etc.)
  • Physical strength (per ASTM standards)
  • De-oxidation process (killed or semi-killed)
  • Heat treatment (annealed, tempered, etc.)
  • Quality nomenclature (commercial quality, pressure vessel quality, drawing quality, etc.)

Steel Numbering Systems

The steel industry uses two major numbering systems to classify steel grades, the American Iron & Steel Institute (AISI) and Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) systems. Both the AISI and SAE systems primarily use four-digit numeric codes to identify a material’s base carbon or alloy steel; however, some select alloy steels have five-digit codes.

All carbon steels start with a one (1) in both the SAE & AISI systems. Carbon steels are then further subdivided into four categories by their underlying properties. The four categories are:

  • Plain carbon steel – 10xx series (containing 1.00% Mn maximum)
  • Resulfurized carbon steel- 11xx series
  • Resulfurized and rephosphorized carbon steel – 12xx series
  • Non-resulfurized high-manganese – 15xx series (containing up to 1.65% Mn)

The first digit on all other alloy steels (under the SAE-AISI system), are classified as follows:

2 = Nickel steels.

3 = Nickel-chromium steels.

4 = Molybdenum steels.

5 = Chromium steels.

6 = Chromium-vanadium steels.

7 = Tungsten-chromium steels.

8 = Nickel-chromium-molybdenum steels

9 = Silicon-manganese steels and various other SAE grades

The second digit of a series typically indicates the concentration of the major element in percentiles. The last two digits of a series indicate the carbon concentration.

Types of Carbon Steel

Carbon steel is organized into three main categories: 

  • Low carbon steel (or mild steel) –  This is one of the most common types of carbon steel. Mild steel has a carbon content of between 0.04% to 0.30%. Depending on the desired properties needed, other elements can be added or increased. 
  • Medium carbon steel – Medium carbon steel has a carbon range of 0.31% to 0.60%, and a manganese content ranging from .060% to 1.65%. Medium carbon steel is stronger than low carbon steel but is more difficult to form, weld and cut..
  • High carbon steel – High carbon steel, also known as tool steel, has a carbon range between 0.61% and 1.50%. High carbon steel is difficult to cut and bend which makes it ideal for tools.

Steel Grades & Standards

According to the World Steel Association, there are over 3,500 different grades of steel. At its core, steel is composed of iron and carbon, but the amount of carbon, level of impurities and additional alloying elements all contribute to what grade steel is classified. Each steel grade has its unique properties and typical end-use. Below are the common grades of steel and their uses as determined by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)

ASTM Steel Standards

Steel Standards for Architectural Metal Fence Systems

 

Designation

Type of Steel

F2408 – 16

Ornamental fences with galvanized steel tubular pickets 

F2453 / F2453M – 14(2019)

Welded wire mesh fence fabric 

F2548 – 20

Expanded metal fence systems for security purposes

F2589 – 16

Ornamental fences with steel tubular pickets

F2919 / F2919M – 12(2018)

Welded wire mesh fence fabric (metallic-coated or polymer coated) with variable mesh patterns or meshes greater than 6 in.2 [3871 mm2] in panels

F2957 – 13(2019)e1

Ornamental aluminum fence systems

 

Bars

Designation

Title

A29 / A29M – 20

Steel bars, carbon and alloy, hot-wrought

A108 – 18

Steel bar, carbon and alloy, cold-finished

A125 – 96(2018)

Steel springs, helical, heat-treated

A255 – 20a

Standard test methods for determining hardenability of steel

A304 – 20

Carbon and alloy steel bars subject to end-quench hardenability requirements

A311 / A311M – 04(2020)

Cold-drawn, stress-relieved carbon steel bars subject to mechanical property requirements

A322 – 13(2018)e1

Steel bars, alloy, standard grades

A355 – 89(2017)

Steel bars, alloys, for nitriding

A400 – 17

Steel bars, selection guide, composition, and mechanical properties

A434 / A434M – 18

Steel bars, alloy, hot-wrought or cold-finished, quenched and tempered

A499 – 15(2020)

Steel bars and shapes, carbon rolled from “t” rails

A575 – 20

Steel bars, carbon, merchant quality, m-grades

A576 – 17

Steel bars, carbon, hot-wrought, special quality

A663 / A663M – 17

Steel bars, carbon, merchant quality, mechanical properties

A675 / A675M – 14(2019)

Steel bars, carbon, hot-wrought, special quality, mechanical properties

A689 – 97(2018)

Carbon and alloy steel bars for springs

A696 – 17

Steel bars, carbon, hot-wrought or cold-finished, special quality, for pressure piping components

A702 – 13(2018)

Steel fence posts, hot wrought

A739 – 90a(2016)

Steel bars, alloy, hot-wrought, for elevated temperature or pressure-containing parts, or both

A914 / A914M – 19

Steel bars subject to restricted end-quench hardenability requirements

A920 / A920M – 14(2019)

Steel bars, microalloy, hot-wrought, special quality, mechanical properties

A921 / A921M – 93(2016)

Steel bars, microalloy, hot-wrought, special quality, for subsequent hot forging

A1040 – 17

Harmonized standard grade compositions for wrought carbon, low-alloy, and alloy steels

A1075 – 12(2017)e1

Flanged steel u-channel posts

E618 – 07(2018)

Standard test method for evaluating machining performance of ferrous metals using an automatic screw/bar machine

 

Carbon Steel Tubular Products

 

Designation

Title

A53 / A53M – 20

Pipe, steel, black and hot-dipped, zinc-coated, welded and seamless

A106 / A106M – 19a

Seamless carbon steel pipe for high-temperature service

A134 / A134M – 19

Standard specification for pipe, steel, electric-fusion (arc)-welded (sizes nps 16 and over)

A135 / A135M – 20

Standard specification for electric-resistance-welded steel pipe

A139 / A139M – 16

Standard specification for electric-fusion (arc)-welded steel pipe (nps 4 and over)

A178 / A178M – 19

Standard specification for electric-resistance-welded carbon steel and carbon-manganese steel boiler and superheater tubes

A179 / A179M – 19

Standard specification for seamless cold-drawn low-carbon steel heat-exchanger and condenser tubes

A192 / A192M – 17

Standard specification for seamless carbon steel boiler tubes for high-pressure service

A210 / A210M – 19

Standard specification for seamless medium-carbon steel boiler and superheater tubes

A214 / A214M – 19

Standard specification for electric-resistance-welded carbon steel heat-exchanger and condenser tubes

A252 / A252M – 19

Standard specification for welded and seamless steel pipe piles

A254 / A254M – 12(2019)

Standard specification for copper-brazed steel tubing

A381 / A381M – 18

Standard specification for metal-arc-welded carbon or high-strength low-alloy steel pipe for use with high-pressure transmission systems

A423 / A423M – 19

Standard specification for seamless and electric-welded low-alloy steel tubes

A450 / A450M – 18a

Standard specification for general requirements for carbon and low alloy steel tubes

A498 / A498M – 17

Standard specification for seamless and welded carbon steel heat-exchanger tubes with integral fins

A500 / A500M – 20

Standard specification for cold-formed welded and seamless carbon steel structural tubing in rounds and shapes

A501 / A501M – 14

Standard specification for hot-formed welded and seamless carbon steel structural tubing

A512 – 18

Standard specification for cold-drawn buttweld carbon steel mechanical tubing

A513 / A513M – 20a

Standard specification for electric-resistance-welded carbon and alloy steel mechanical tubing

A519 / A519M – 17

Standard specification for seamless carbon and alloy steel mechanical tubing

A523 / A523M – 20

Standard specification for plain end seamless and electric-resistance-welded steel pipe for high-pressure pipe-type cable circuits

A524 – 17

Standard specification for seamless carbon steel pipe for atmospheric and lower temperatures

A530 / A530M – 18

Standard specification for general requirements for specialized carbon and alloy steel pipe

A556 / A556M – 18

Standard specification for seamless cold-drawn carbon steel feedwater heater tubes

A587 – 96(2019)

Standard specification for electric-resistance-welded low-carbon steel pipe for the chemical industry

A589 / A589M – 06(2018)

Standard specification for seamless and welded carbon steel water-well pipe

A595 / A595M – 18

Standard specification for steel tubes, low-carbon or high-strength low-alloy, tapered for structural use

A618 / A618M – 04(2015)

Standard specification for hot-formed welded and seamless high-strength low-alloy structural tubing

A671 / A671M – 20

Standard specification for electric-fusion-welded steel pipe for atmospheric and lower temperatures

A672 / A672M – 19

Standard specification for electric-fusion-welded steel pipe for high-pressure service at moderate temperatures

A691 / A691M – 19

Standard specification for carbon and alloy steel pipe, electric-fusion-welded for high-pressure service at high temperatures

A733 – 16

Standard specification for welded and seamless carbon steel and austenitic stainless steel pipe nipples

A787 / A787M – 20a

Standard specification for electric-resistance-welded metallic-coated carbon steel mechanical tubing

A795 / A795M – 13(2020)

Standard specification for black and hot-dipped zinc-coated (galvanized) welded and seamless steel pipe for fire protection use

A822 / A822M – 20

Standard specification for seamless cold-drawn carbon steel tubing for hydraulic system service

A847 / A847M – 20

Standard specification for cold-formed welded and seamless high-strength, low-alloy structural tubing with improved atmospheric corrosion resistance

A865 / A865M – 06(2017)

Standard specification for threaded couplings, steel, black or zinc-coated (galvanized) welded or seamless, for use in steel pipe joints

A972 / A972M – 00(2015)

Standard specification for fusion bonded epoxy-coated pipe piles

A1024 / A1024M – 18

Standard specification for steel line pipe, black, plain-end, seamless

A1065 / A1065M – 18

Standard specification for cold-formed electric-fusion (arc) welded high-strength low–alloy structural tubing in shapes, with 50 ksi [345 mpa] minimum yield point

A1076 / A1076M – 20

Standard specification for cold formed carbon structural steel tubing made from metallic precoated sheet steel

A1085 / A1085M – 15

Standard specification for cold-formed welded carbon steel hollow structural sections (hss)

A1097 – 16

Standard specification for steel casing pipe, electric-fusion (arc)-welded (outside diameter of 10 in. And larger)

A1103 / A1103M – 16

Standard specification for seamless cold-finished carbon steel structural frame tubing for automotive racing applications

A1110 / A1110M – 18

Standard specification for cold-formed welded and seamless carbon steel structural tubing in rounds and shapes with 52 ksi [360 mpa] minimum yield strength and impact requirements

A1112 / A1112M – 18

Standard specification for cold-formed welded high strength carbon steel or high-strength low-alloy steel hollow structural sections (hss) in rounds and shapes

 

Castings

 

Designation

Title

A27 / A27M – 20

Standard specification for steel castings, carbon, for general application

A99 – 03(2019)

Standard specification for ferromanganese

A100 – 07(2018)

Standard specification for ferrosilicon

A101 – 04(2019)

Standard specification for ferrochromium

A102 – 04(2019)

Standard specification for ferrovanadium

A128 / A128M – 19

Standard specification for steel castings, austenitic manganese

A132 – 04(2019)

Standard specification for ferromolybdenum

A144 – 04(2019)

Standard specification for ferrotungsten

A146 – 04(2019)

Standard specification for molybdenum oxide products

A148 / A148M – 20e1

Standard specification for steel castings, high strength, for structural purposes

A216 / A216M – 18

Standard specification for steel castings, carbon, suitable for fusion welding, for high-temperature service

A217 / A217M – 20

Standard specification for steel castings, martensitic stainless and alloy, for pressure-containing parts, suitable for high-temperature service

A297 / A297M – 20

Standard specification for steel castings, iron-chromium and iron-chromium-nickel, heat resistant, for general application

A323 – 05(2020)

Standard specification for ferroboron

A324 – 08(2019)

Standard specification for ferrotitanium

A351 / A351M – 18e1

Standard specification for castings, austenitic, for pressure-containing parts

A352 / A352M – 18a

Standard specification for steel castings, ferritic and martensitic, for pressure-containing parts, suitable for low-temperature service

A356 / A356M – 16

Standard specification for steel castings, carbon, low alloy, and stainless steel, heavy-walled for steam turbines

A389 / A389M – 13(2018)

Standard specification for steel castings, alloy, specially heat treated, for pressure-containing parts, suitable for high-temperature service

A426 / A426M – 18

Standard specification for centrifugally cast ferritic alloy steel pipe for high-temperature service

A447 / A447M – 11(2016)

Standard specification for steel castings, chromium-nickel-iron alloy (25-12 class), for high-temperature service

A451 / A451M – 20

Standard specification for centrifugally cast austenitic steel pipe for high-temperature service

A481 – 05(2020)

Standard specification for chromium metal

A482 / A482M – 11(2016)

Standard specification for ferrochrome-silicon

A483 / A483M – 10(2020)

Standard specification for silicomanganese

A487 / A487M – 20

Standard specification for steel castings suitable for pressure service

A488 / A488M – 18e2

Standard practice for steel castings, welding, qualifications of procedures and personnel

A494 / A494M – 18a

Standard specification for castings, nickel and nickel alloy

A495 – 06(2020)

Standard specification for calcium-silicon alloys

A550 – 16

Standard specification for ferrocolumbium (ferroniobium)

A560 / A560M – 12(2018)

Standard specification for castings, chromium-nickel alloy

A601 / A601M – 10(2020)

Standard specification for electrolytic manganese metal

A608 / A608M – 20

Standard specification for centrifugally cast iron-chromium-nickel high-alloy tubing for pressure application at high temperatures

A609 / A609M – 12(2018)

Standard practice for castings, carbon, low-alloy, and martensitic stainless steel, ultrasonic examination thereof

A610 – 79(2019)

Standard test methods for sampling and testing ferroalloys for determination of size

A636 – 08(2018)

Standard specification for nickel oxide sinter

A660 / A660M – 11(2016)

Standard specification for centrifugally cast carbon steel pipe for high-temperature service

A701 / A701M – 10(2020)

Standard specification for ferromanganese-silicon

A703 / A703M – 20a

Standard specification for steel castings, general requirements, for pressure-containing parts

A732 / A732M – 20

Standard specification for castings, investment, carbon and low-alloy steel for general application, and cobalt alloy for high strength at elevated temperatures

A743 / A743M – 19

Standard specification for castings, iron-chromium, iron-chromium-nickel, corrosion resistant, for general application

A744 / A744M – 20a

Standard specification for castings, iron-chromium-nickel, corrosion resistant, for severe service

A747 / A747M – 18

Standard specification for steel castings, stainless, precipitation hardening

A757 / A757M – 15

Standard specification for steel castings, ferritic and martensitic, for pressure-containing and other applications, for low-temperature service

A781 / A781M – 20a

Standard specification for castings, steel and alloy, common requirements, for general industrial use

A799 / A799M – 10(2020)

Standard practice for steel castings, stainless, instrument calibration, for estimating ferrite content

A800 / A800M – 20

Standard practice for estimating ferrite content of stainless steel castings containing both ferrite and austenite

A802 – 19

Standard practice for steel castings, surface acceptance standards, visual examination

A835 / A835M – 10(2020)

Standard specification for sizes of ferroalloys and alloy additives

A872 / A872M – 14

Standard specification for centrifugally cast ferritic/austenitic stainless steel pipe for corrosive environments

A890 / A890M – 18a

Standard specification for castings, iron-chromium-nickel-molybdenum corrosion-resistant, duplex (austenitic/ferritic) for general application

A903 / A903M – 99(2017)

Standard specification for steel castings, surface acceptance standards, magnetic particle and liquid penetrant inspection

A915 / A915M – 08(2018)

Standard specification for steel castings, carbon, and alloy, chemical requirements similar to standard wrought grades

A922 – 05(2020)

Standard specification for silicon metal

A957 / A957M – 20

Standard specification for investment castings, steel and alloy, common requirements, for general industrial use

A958 / A958M – 17

Standard specification for steel castings, carbon and alloy, with tensile requirements, chemical requirements similar to standard wrought grades

A985 / A985M – 20

Standard specification for steel investment castings general requirements, for pressure-containing parts

A990 / A990M – 20

Standard specification for castings, iron-nickel-chromium and nickel alloys, specially controlled for pressure-retaining parts for corrosive service

A995 / A995M – 20

Standard specification for castings, austenitic-ferritic (duplex) stainless steel, for pressure-containing parts

A997 – 08(2018)

Standard practice for investment castings, surface acceptance standards, visual examination

A1001 – 18

Standard specification for high-strength steel castings in heavy sections

A1002 – 16(2020)

Standard specification for castings, nickel-aluminum ordered alloy

A1025 / A1025M – 10(2020)

Standard specification for ferroalloys and other alloying materials, general requirements

A1062 – 10(2020)

Standard specification for steel castings sampling

A1067 / A1067M – 12a(2018)

Standard specification for test coupons for steel castings

A1080 / A1080M – 19

Standard practice for hot isostatic pressing of steel, stainless steel, and related alloy castings

A1091 / A1091M – 16e1

Standard specification for steel castings, creep-strength enhanced ferritic alloy, for pressure-containing parts, suitable for high temperature service

 

Chain Link Fence and Wire Accessories

 

Designation

Title

A392 – 11a(2017)

Standard specification for zinc-coated steel chain-link fence fabric

A491 – 11(2017)

Standard specification for aluminum-coated steel chain-link fence fabric

A824 – 01(2017)

Standard specification for metallic-coated steel marcelled tension wire for use with chain link fence

F552 – 14(2019)

Standard terminology relating to chain link fencing

F567 – 14a(2019)

Standard practice for installation of chain-link fence

F626 – 14(2019)

Standard specification for fence fittings

F668 – 17

Standard specification for polyvinyl chloride (pvc), polyolefin and other polymer-coated steel chain link fence fabric

F934 – 96(2017)

Standard specification for standard colors for polymer-coated chain link fence materials

F1043 – 18

Standard specification for strength and protective coatings on steel industrial fence framework

F1083 – 18

Standard specification for pipe, steel, hot-dipped zinc-coated (galvanized) welded, for fence structures

F1183 – 96(2017)

Standard specification for aluminum alloy chain link fence fabric

F1345 – 10a(2019)

Standard specification for zinc-5 % aluminum-mischmetal alloy-coated steel chain-link fence fabric

F1379 – 95(2018)

Standard terminology relating to barbed tape

F1553 – 11(2017)

Standard guide for specifying chain link fence

F1664 – 08(2018)

Standard specification for poly(vinyl chloride) (pvc) and other conforming organic polymer-coated steel tension wire used with chain-link fence

F1665 – 08(2018)

Standard specification for poly(vinyl chloride) (pvc) and other conforming organic polymer-coated steel barbed wire used with chain-link fence

F1910 – 98(2018)

Standard specification for long barbed tape obstacles

F1911 – 05(2019)

Standard practice for installation of barbed tape

F3000 / F3000M – 13(2018)

Standard specification for polymer privacy insert slats for chain link fabric and privacy chain link fabric manufactured containing pre-installed privacy slats

 

Computer Applications

 

Designation

Title

F1716 – 96(2015)

Standard guide for transition and performance of marine software systems maintenance

F1757 – 96(2015)

Standard guide for digital communication protocols for computerized systems

F2001 – 15

Standard guide for vessel-related technical information for use in developing an electronic database and ship safety record

F2017 – 15

Standard guide for database structure of electronic data interchange between ship owner and shipyard for contract administration

F2218 – 02(2015)

Standard guide for hardware implementation for computerized systems

F2446 – 04(2018)

Standard classification for hierarchy of equipment identifiers and boundaries for reliability, availability, and maintainability (ram) performance data exchange

F3286 – 17

Standard guide for cybersecurity and cyberattack mitigation

 

Corrugated Steel Pipe Specifications

 

Designation

Title

A742 / A742M – 20

Standard specification for steel sheet, metallic coated and polymer precoated for corrugated steel pipe

A760 / A760M – 15(2020)

Standard specification for corrugated steel pipe, metallic-coated for sewers and drains

A761 / A761M – 18

Standard specification for corrugated steel structural plate, zinc-coated, for field-bolted pipe, pipe-arches, and arches

A762 / A762M – 19

Standard specification for corrugated steel pipe, polymer precoated for sewers and drains

A796 / A796M – 17a

Standard practice for structural design of corrugated steel pipe, pipe-arches, and arches for storm and sanitary sewers and other buried applications

A798 / A798M – 17

Standard practice for installing factory-made corrugated steel pipe for sewers and other applications

A807 / A807M – 19

Standard practice for installing corrugated steel structural plate pipe for sewers and other applications

A849 – 15

Standard specification for post-applied coatings, pavings, and linings for corrugated steel sewer and drainage pipe

A862 / A862M – 98(2020)

Standard practice for application of asphalt coatings to corrugated steel sewer and drainage pipe

A929 / A929M – 18

Standard specification for steel sheet, metallic-coated by the hot-dip process for corrugated steel pipe

A930 – 09(2020)

Standard practice for life-cycle cost analysis of corrugated metal pipe used for culverts, storm sewers, and other buried conduits

A964 / A964M – 17

Standard specification for corrugated steel box culverts

A979 / A979M – 03(2019)

Standard specification for concrete pavements and linings installed in corrugated steel structures in the field

A998 / A998M – 18

Standard practice for structural design of reinforcements for fittings in factory–made corrugated steel pipe for sewers and other applications

A1105 – 17

Standard specification for corrugated steel manhole assemblies

A1107 / A1107M – 17

Standard specification for resilient connectors between reinforced concrete manhole structures and corrugated steel drainage pipes

A1108 – 17

Standard test method for determining the ultimate strength of deep corrugated structural plate bolted longitudinal lapped seams

A1113 / A1113M – 20

Standard specification for corrugated steel structural plate, polymer-coated, for field-bolted pipe, pipe-arches, and arches

 

Editorial

 

Designation

Title

A994 – 18

Standard guide for editorial procedures and form of product specifications for steel, stainless steel, and related alloys

E527 – 16

Standard practice for numbering metals and alloys in the unified numbering system (uns)

 

Editorial and Terminology

 

Designation

Title

A902 – 18a

Standard terminology relating to metallic coated steel products

 

Electrical

 

Designation

Title

F1003 – 19

Standard specification for searchlights on motor lifeboats

F1014 – 20

Standard specification for flashlights on vessels

F1134 – 15(2019)

Standard specification for insulation resistance monitor for shipboard electrical motors and generators

F1198 – 92(2018)e1

Standard guide for shipboard fire detection systems

F1207M – 12(2018)

Standard specification for electrical insulation monitors for monitoring ground resistance in active electrical systems [metric]

F1507 – 99(2017)

Standard specification for surge suppressors for shipboard use

F1669M – 12(2018)

Standard specification for insulation monitors for shipboard electrical systems [metric]

F1755M – 96(2018)

Standard specification for solid state bargraph meters for shipboard use (metric)

F1835 – 97(2018)

Standard guide for cable splicing installations

F1836M – 15(2019)

Standard specification for stuffing tubes, nylon, and packing assemblies (metric)

F1837M – 97(2018)

Standard specification for heat-shrink cable entry seals (metric)

F1883 – 20

Standard practice for selection of wire and cable size in awg or metric units

F2044 – 09(2019)e1

Standard specification for liquid level indicating equipment, electrical

F2045 – 00(2018)e1

Standard specification for indicators, sight, liquid level, direct and indirect reading, tubular glass/plastic

F2046 – 00(2017)

Standard specification for tachometers, various

F2070 – 00(2017)

Standard specification for transducers, pressure and differential, pressure, electrical and fiber-optic

F2071 – 00(2017)

Standard specification for switch, position proximity (noncontact) or limit (mechanical contact), fiber-optic

F2361 – 18

Standard guide for ordering low voltage (1000 vac or less) alternating current electric motors for shipboard service—up to and including motors of 500 horsepower

F2362 – 03(2019)

Standard specification for temperature monitoring equipment

F3353 – 19

Standard guide for shipboard use of lithium-ion (li-ion) batteries

 

Flat-Rolled and Wrought Stainless Steel

 

Designation

Title

A240 / A240M – 20a

Standard specification for chromium and chromium-nickel stainless steel plate, sheet, and strip for pressure vessels and for general applications

A276 / A276M – 17

Standard specification for stainless steel bars and shapes

A313 / A313M – 18

Standard specification for stainless steel spring wire

A314 – 19

Standard specification for stainless steel billets and bars for forging

A368 – 95a(2019)

Standard specification for stainless steel wire strand

A478 – 97(2019)

Standard specification for chromium-nickel stainless steel weaving and knitting wire

A479 / A479M – 20

Standard specification for stainless steel bars and shapes for use in boilers and other pressure vessels

A480 / A480M – 20a

Standard specification for general requirements for flat-rolled stainless and heat-resisting steel plate, sheet, and strip

A484 / A484M – 20b

Standard specification for general requirements for stainless steel bars, billets, and forgings

A492 – 95(2019)

Standard specification for stainless steel rope wire

A493 – 16

Standard specification for stainless steel wire and wire rods for cold heading and cold forging

A555 / A555M – 20

Standard specification for general requirements for stainless steel wire and wire rods

A564 / A564M – 19a

Standard specification for hot-rolled and cold-finished age-hardening stainless steel bars and shapes

A565 / A565M – 10(2017)e1

Standard specification for martensitic stainless steel bars for high-temperature service

A580 / A580M – 18

Standard specification for stainless steel wire

A581 / A581M – 95b(2014)

Standard specification for free-machining stainless steel wire and wire rods

A582 / A582M – 12(2017)

Standard specification for free-machining stainless steel bars

A638 / A638M – 20

Standard specification for precipitation hardening iron base superalloy bars, forgings, and forging stock for high-temperature service

A666 – 15

Standard specification for annealed or cold-worked austenitic stainless steel sheet, strip, plate, and flat bar

A693 – 16

Standard specification for precipitation-hardening stainless and heat-resisting steel plate, sheet, and strip

A705 / A705M – 20

Standard specification for age-hardening stainless steel forgings

A793 – 96(2014)

Standard specification for rolled floor plate, stainless steel

A887 – 20

Standard specification for borated stainless steel plate, sheet, and strip for nuclear application

A895 – 89(2017)

Standard specification for free-machining stainless steel plate, sheet, and strip

A947M – 16

Standard specification for textured stainless steel sheet [metric]

A959 – 19

Standard guide for specifying harmonized standard grade compositions for wrought stainless steels

A1010 / A1010M – 13(2018)

Standard specification for higher-strength martensitic stainless steel plate, sheet, and strip

A1028 – 03(2015)

Standard specification for stainless steel bars for compressor and turbine airfoils

A1069 / A1069M – 19

Standard specification for laser and laser hybrid welded stainless steel bars, plates, and shapes

 

Gates

 

Designation

Title

F654 – 07(2017)

Standard specification for residential chain link fence gates

F900 – 11(2017)

Standard specification for industrial and commercial steel swing gates

F1184 – 16

Standard specification for industrial and commercial horizontal slide gates

F2200 – 20

Standard specification for automated vehicular gate construction

F2630 – 14

Standard guide for self-closing/self-latching general-purpose gates

 

General Requirements

 

Designation

Title

F906 – 85(2020)

Standard specification for letters and numerals for ships

F956 – 91(2018)

Standard specification for bell, cast, sound signalling

F957 – 91(2018)

Standard specification for gong, sound signaling

F1097 – 17

Standard specification for mortar, refractory (high-temperature, air-setting)

F1099M – 18

Standard specification for rat guards, ship’s (metric)

F1138 – 98(2014)

Standard specification for spray shields for mechanical joints

F1145 – 05(2017)

Standard specification for turnbuckles, swaged, welded, forged

F1166 – 07(2013)

Standard practice for human engineering design for marine systems, equipment, and facilities

F1182 – 07(2019)

Standard specification for anodes, sacrificial zinc alloy

F1270 – 97(2019)

Standard practice for preparing and locating emergency muster lists

F1297 – 90(2018)

Standard guide for location and instruction symbols for evacuation and lifesaving equipment

F1312 – 19

Standard specification for brick, insulating, high temperature, fire clay

F1337 – 10(2015)

Standard practice for human systems integration program requirements for ships and marine systems, equipment, and facilities

F1347 – 91(2018)

Standard specification for manually operated fueling hose reels

F1348 / F1348M – 91(2019)

Standard specification for pneumatic rotary descaling machines

F1546 – 96(2018)

Standard specification for fire hose nozzles

F1878 – 98(2015)

Standard guide for escort vessel evaluation and selection

F1994 – 99(2019)e1

Standard test method for shipboard fixed foam firefighting systems

F2016 – 00(2018)

Standard practice for establishing shipbuilding quality requirements for hull structure, outfitting, and coatings

F2039 – 00(2018)

Standard guide for basic elements of shipboard occupational health and safety program

F2192 – 05(2017)

Standard test method for determining and reporting the berthing energy and reaction of marine fenders

F2876 – 10(2015)

Standard practice for thermal rating and installation of internal combustion engine packages for use in hazardous locations in marine applications

F3256 – 17

Standard guide for reporting and recording of near-misses for maritime industry

F3284 – 18

Standard guide for recording and reporting of injuries and illnesses for the maritime industry

F3449 – 20

Standard guide for inclusion of cyber risks into maritime safety management systems in accordance with imo resolution msc.428(98)―cyber risks and challenges

 

High Security Fences and Perimeter Barriers

 

Designation

Title

F2611 – 15

Standard guide for design and construction of chain link security fencing

F2780 – 20

Standard guide for design and construction of expanded metal security fences and barriers

F2781 – 15

Standard practice for testing forced entry, ballistic and low impact resistance of security fence systems

F2814 – 09(2015)

Standard guide for design and construction of ornamental steel picket fence systems for security purposes

F3204 – 16

Standard guide for design and construction of welded wire fence systems for security purposes

 

Insulation/Processes

 

Designation

Title

F683 – 14

Standard practice for selection and application of thermal insulation for piping and machinery

F2087 – 13(2019)

Standard specification for packing, fiberglass, braided, rope, and wick

F2154 – 13(2019)

Standard specification for sound-absorbing board, fibrous glass, perforated fibrous glass cloth faced

F2168 – 13(2019)

Standard specification for packing material, graphitic, corrugated ribbon or textured tape, and die-formed ring

F2191 / F2191M – 13(2020)e1

Standard specification for packing material, graphitic or carbon braided yarn

F2877 / F2877M – 13(2019)

Standard test method for shock testing of structural insulation of a-class divisions constructed of steel or aluminum

F3319 – 20

Standard specification for selection and application of field-installed cryogenic pipe and equipment insulation systems on liquefied natural gas (lng)-fueled ships

 

Machinery and Piping Systems

 

Designation

Title

F681 – 82(2018)

Standard practice for use of branch connections

F682 – 82a(2018)

Standard specification for wrought carbon steel sleeve-type pipe couplings

F704 – 81(2018)e1

Standard practice for selecting bolting lengths for piping system flanged joints

F707 / F707M – 94(2019)e1

Standard specification for modular gauge boards

F708 – 92(2018)e1

Standard practice for design and installation of rigid pipe hangers

F721 – 18

Standard specification for gage piping assemblies

F722 – 18

Standard specification for welded joints for shipboard piping systems

F841 – 19

Standard specification for thrusters, tunnel, permanently installed in marine vessels

F856 – 97(2018)

Standard practice for mechanical symbols, shipboard—heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (hvac)

F885 – 84(2017)

Standard specification for envelope dimensions for bronze globe valves nps 14 to 2

F986 – 86(2018)e1

Standard specification for suction strainer boxes

F992 – 17

Standard specification for valve label plates

F993 – 17

Standard specification for valve locking devices

F994 – 86(2018)

Standard specification for design and installation of overboard discharge hull penetration connections

F998 – 12(2018)

Standard specification for centrifugal pump, shipboard use

F1000 – 13(2019)

Standard practice for piping system drawing symbols

F1005 – 91(2019)

Standard practice for hvac duct shapes; identification and description of design configuration

F1006 – 86(2018)

Standard specification for entrainment separators for use in marine piping applications

F1007 – 18

Standard specification for pipeline expansion joints of the packed slip type for marine application

F1020 – 86(2018)

Standard specification for line-blind valves for marine applications

F1030 – 86(2018)

Standard practice for selection of valve operators

F1075 – 97(2018)

Standard specification for dehumidifier, shipboard, mechanically refrigerated, self-contained

F1076 – 19

Standard practice for expanded welded and silver brazed socket joints for pipe and tube

F1098 – 87(2019)

Standard specification for envelope dimensions for butterfly valves—nps 2 to 24

F1120 – 87(2019)

Standard specification for circular metallic bellows type expansion joints for piping applications

F1121 – 87(2019)

Standard specification for international shore connections for marine fire applications

F1122 – 04(2015)e1

Standard specification for quick disconnect couplings (6 in. Nps and smaller)

F1123 – 87(2019)

Standard specification for non-metallic expansion joints

F1139 – 88(2019)

Standard specification for steam traps and drains

F1155 – 10(2019)

Standard practice for selection and application of piping system materials

F1172 – 88(2019)

Standard specification for fuel oil meters of the volumetric positive displacement type

F1173 – 01(2018)

Standard specification for thermosetting resin fiberglass pipe systems to be used for marine applications

F1199 – 88(2019)

Standard specification for cast (all temperatures and pressures) and welded pipe line strainers (150 psig and 150°f maximum)

F1200 – 88(2016)

Standard specification for fabricated (welded) pipe line strainers (above 150 psig and 150°f)

F1201 – 88(2016)

Standard specification for fluid conditioner fittings in piping applications above 0°f

F1245 – 19

Standard specification for faucets, single and double, compression and self-closing type, shipboard

F1271 – 90(2018)

Standard specification for spill valves for use in marine tank liquid overpressure protections applications

F1273 – 91(2013)

Standard specification for tank vent flame arresters

F1298 – 90(2018)

Standard specification for flexible, expansion-type ball joints for marine applications

F1311 – 90(2018)

Standard specification for large–diameter fabricated carbon steel flanges

F1330 – 91(2018)

Standard guide for metallic abrasive blasting to descale the interior of pipe

F1333 – 91(2019)

Standard specification for construction of fire and foam station cabinets

F1338 – 91(2019)

Standard guide for main propulsion medium speed marine diesel engines covering performance and minimum scope of assembly

F1370 – 92(2019)e1

Standard specification for pressure-reducing valves for water systems, shipboard

F1386 – 92(2016)e1

Standard guide for construction of sounding tube and striker plate for tank sounding

F1387 – 19

Standard specification for performance of piping and tubing mechanically attached fittings

F1431 – 92(2016)

Standard specification for water trap for diesel exhaust

F1476 – 07(2019)

Standard specification for performance of gasketed mechanical couplings for use in piping applications

F1508 – 96(2016)e1

Standard specification for angle style, pressure relief valves for steam, gas, and liquid services

F1510 – 07(2019)

Standard specification for rotary positive displacement pumps, ships use

F1511 – 18

Standard specification for mechanical seals for shipboard pump applications

F1548 – 01(2018)

Standard specification for performance of fittings for use with gasketed mechanical couplings used in piping applications

F1565 – 00(2019)

Standard specification for pressure-reducing valves for steam service

F1567 – 94(2019)

Standard specification for fabricated or cast automatic self-cleaning, fuel oil and lubricating oil strainers

F1685 – 00(2019)

Standard specification for pressure-reducing manifolds for air or nitrogen systems

F1718 – 01(2019)

Standard specification for rotary positive displacement distillate fuel pumps

F1791 – 00(2019)

Standard specification for filters used in air or nitrogen systems

F1792 – 97(2016)e1

Standard specification for special requirements for valves used in gaseous oxygen service

F1793 – 97(2016)e1

Standard specification for automatic shut-off valves (also known as excess flow valves, efv) for air or nitrogen service

F1794 – 97(2016)e1

Standard specification for hand-operated, globe-style valves for gas (except oxygen gas) and hydraulic systems

F1795 – 00(2019)

Standard specification for pressure-reducing valves for air or nitrogen systems

F1985 – 99(2019)e1

Standard specification for pneumatic-operated, globe-style, control valves

F2014 – 00(2019)

Standard specification for non-reinforced extruded tee connections for piping applications

F2015 – 00(2019)

Standard specification for lap joint flange pipe end applications

F2798 – 09(2018)

Standard specification for sealless lube oil pump with oil through motor for marine applications

F2934 – 12(2018)

Standard specification for circular metallic bellows type expansion joint for hvac piping applications

F3226 / F3226M – 19

Standard specification for metallic press-connect fittings for piping and tubing systems

F3285 – 18

Standard guide for installation and application of type c portable tanks for marine lng service

F3312 / F3312M – 18

Standard practice for liquefied natural gas (lng) bunkering hose transfer assembly

F3386 / F3386M – 20

Standard specification for detonation flame arresters